Ethics Helpline

(248) 422 5517


Morality involves both reason and emotion. Reason has dominion over the emotions and influences the degree to which an emotion is experienced and then acted upon. On the other hand emotions or sentiments need the guidance of reason. 

Four categories of moral virtues. They are:

  1. Useful to self:  Discretion, industry, frugality, caution, strength of mind, wisdom, memory, enterprise, assiduity, good sense, discernment, temperance, patience, constancy, perseverance, forethought, judgment, considerateness, peace of mind.
  2. Useful to others: Benevolence, justice, gratitude, friendliness, truthfulness, fidelity, honor, allegiance, chastity, charity, affability, moderation.
  3. Immediately agreeable to self: Cheerfulness, greatness of mind, courage, humility, dignity, tranquility, poetic talent, serenity, refined taste.
  4. Immediately agreeable to others: Good manners, wit, ingenuity, eloquence, affability, modesty, decency, politeness, gentility, cleanliness.
  • A person of good character  needs to have a balance of the virtues from the four categories. If a person inclines too much to ward virtues that useful and agreeable to herself, then she may not be able to meet some of the needs of others.


  • A person who is too well stocked in virtues that are useful and agreeable to others may not be able to meet some of her own needs and wants. The balance is crucial; it is what provides the stability within ourselves and between us and others.


About the POEC

To administer and enforce the Public Officers’ Ethics Act which comprises of the code of conduct and ethics for public officers and declarations of income, assets and liabilities for designated public officers.